- Define the requirements and specify the system
- System specifications are materialized in the field.
- Implementation of the production control system.
- Reflecting inventory based on physical inventory and moving inventory to the relevant warehouse location
- Create MPS from order information and issue manufacturing instructions by distributing MRP.
- Issuance of Shipping Instructions and Recording of Shipping Results
- Accounting for input and production results
- The material warehouse and the factory are production control, while the product warehouse and beyond are sales control.
Define the requirements and specify the system
When introducing a production management system, there is a phase of requirement definition that determines the operational flow of the system, such as how to issue instructions from the system to the movement of work on site and how to record the results.
In the case of introducing a system to a local company in Indonesia, all the requirements are decided between the Japanese side, mainly the Information System Department at the head office in Japan, and the Japanese person in charge of introduction in Indonesia (we mean us).
In order to have a standard specification for the entire group, the requirement definition is led by Japan.
Because the system is used by Indonesian staffs, we aim at unanimous agreement by discussing with them until they are satisfied with the system.
However, if this is not the case, or if the partner's staff is dispatched from the partner's side because of the current capital relationship, the implementation phase (i.e., putting the system into operation after the requirements are defined) will be fiercely booed.
It would be cute if they said, "They don't do it this way in Indonesia," or "The master's numbers aren't right, but I don't care because the Japanese decided to do it on their own," but there was a strange atmosphere in the air that said, "Our salaries won't go up because we're spending a lot of money to implement this system.
System specifications are materialized in the field.
Everything is based on the requirement definitions decided at the meeting in this conference room, but add-ons are developed to address gaps in the system's standard functions, and fine adjustments such as specification changes and additional development are made while listening to the voice of the field staff during the operational briefings and training for the completed system. In the operational rehearsals, where data is entered by each department staff member from the beginning to the end of the system operation, the method of inter-departmental cooperation that will become necessary for actual operation is confirmed.
And in the implementation phase where instructions (transfer instructions, manufacturing instructions, delivery instructions, picking list) are issued from the system according to the movement of people and things in the field, and the actual results are inputted, the soul that had left the body returns to the body, and the theory on the desk that has been accumulated so far is materialized as if the body returns.
However, if a problem occurs during operation that was not envisioned in the requirements definition, or if the impact on operation is much greater than envisioned, manual work that places a heavy burden on the people in the field will occur, and the operation of the system that is about to go into operation will be disrupted.
For example, if the label printer that publishes the item sheet breaks down, the label is output from a normal multifunction printer using A4 paper instead of sticker-type label paper, and the label is attached to the item with cellophane tape.
Implementation of the production control system.
Reflecting inventory based on physical inventory and moving inventory to the relevant warehouse location
The first thing to do when starting to operate a production management system is to reflect the inventory information based on the physical inventory into the system.
How to paste a physical inventory slip for all the inventory already in the warehouse?
- Lot inspection is carried out for all the lots entered into the inventory and a physical inventory slip is issued.
- Issuance of an inventory slip by inputting the issued P/O in the back date and performing an acceptance inspection after the receiving process.
The materials and materials in the relevant lot allocated by the manufacturing order are linked as a delivery order, and the actual delivery record is recorded by scanning the barcode on the inventory slip when the item is delivered from the warehouse, so the item code and lot number must be included in the barcode at least.
In this case, the shelf number is scanned by scanning the barcode on the shelf when the item is moved in the warehouse, and it is recorded in the transfer results.
Create MPS from order information and issue manufacturing instructions by distributing MRP.
Only after the on-site inventory matches the inventory in the system, a Master Production Schedule is created from the order information, and the system generates production instructions that match the production batch size at the manufacturing site by turning the MRP.
- Is the production start date staggered as per the current lead time?
- Does the production lot size match the actual situation?
Once the accuracy of the master has increased and the system operation has taken root, practice will be performed mechanically based on the manufacturing instructions issued by the system. However, immediately after introduction, it is important that the manufacturing instructions are issued by the system in accordance with the field operation in order to gain credibility with the system, in other words, to make people think, "We can use this system.
Issuance of Shipping Instructions and Recording of Shipping Results
The timing of instructions and results is also different, so the production control system basically follows two-step processing.
- Issue instructions and record results (manufacturing, delivery, and transfer)
- Create information and record the results (P/O, inspection)
However, only the item code, lot number, and quantity are specified in the shipping order, and the item number and quantity are recorded in the actual transportation results by scanning the barcode on the shelf when the warehouse staff works.
- Moving to the warehouse: Specify From "Item Code + Lot Number" and To "Warehouse" in the instruction, and record To "Shelf Number" in the result.
- Moving from the warehouse: From "Item Code + Lot Number" and "Warehouse" are specified in the order, and From "Shelf Number" is recorded in the result.
Accounting for input and production results
If the back-flash method automatically inputs the standard required quantity set in the BOM (Bill of Materials) when recording production results, all the actual products in the factory can be identified by the item code of the production control system. However, if there is a discrepancy between the timing of input and the timing of production results, the process inventory that is not aggregated in the item code will exist in the factory.
- item-coded work in progress
- In-process work in progress with no item code
However, when the processing cost is added and it becomes a work in progress, it becomes an expense (expense) for accounting purposes in the current month, and if it cannot be made into a product at the end of the month, it is recorded in the work in progress inventory (asset).
The material warehouse and the factory are production control, while the product warehouse and beyond are sales control.
The functions of a production management system can be broadly categorized into the following three categories.
- Purchase management (material storage)
- Manufacturing management (workshop)
- Sales management (product warehouse)
And it depends on whether the item stored in the place is a production item or a sale item.
- Production control (material warehouse and plant)
- sales management
Since it can be classified, the actual product is moved from the production location to the sales location at the time when the production results of the product are recorded, and from here on, it belongs to the category of sales management.