Real Estate

A prenuptial agreement (Perjanjian Perkawinan) specifying the separate ownership of property (pisah harta)

2016/08/13

財産分離所有(pisah harta)を明記した婚前契約書(Perjanjian Perkawinan)には何が書いてあるのか

Rights to real estate in Indonesia

It's been about a week since I moved from my apartment in Kuningan, where I've been living for 10 years, to the apartment behind Grand Indonesia, which is close to my office.

Now that the economy is leaning, it is relatively easy to negotiate with the owner, and from the side of renting, it is possible to negotiate a bold discount, but as the owner of the side of renting, there are people who want to rent and people who do not want to rent, depending on their nationality and family structure.

If the person who rents the room becomes a criminal such as a drug dealer, not only the owner of the room but also the real estate agent who mediated it will be investigated by the police, so it seems that Japanese people who are considered "quiet and good at paying money" belong to the "side that wants to rent".

Because it is said that the ideal of the apartment investment is "to sell it at the price that has increased to twice the price after letting it for 8-10 years after purchasing it and recovering the principal," this apartment that will soon become 10 years old has also been advertised for sale, and the old man of Century 21 who had me mediate the room this time also asks me every time I meet him.

  • You don't plan to buy it?

In this case, the following questions are always asked by the agency man.

  • There is a prenuptial agreement (Perjanjian perkawinan), isn't there?

The rights to real estate in Indonesia can be broadly categorized as follows

  1. Hak Milik (ownership).
    Indonesian nationals only
  2. Hak Guna Bangunan (building use right)
    Most real estate in the company's name can be extended for 30 years plus 20 years.
  3. Hak Pakai (right of use)
    This is the only residence with a fixed-term leasehold that can be extended for 25 years plus 20 years and is the only property owned by a foreign resident (KITAS holder who stays 183 days or more per year).
  4. Hak Guna Usaha (business use right)
    This is possible on large business sites and can be extended for a term of 35 years plus 25 years.

Foreigners in Indonesia cannot have ownership of land (Hak Milik), so if you limit yourself to the personal level, you can either buy it in the name of an Indonesian, or you can buy it with the right of use (Hak Pakai) in your name.

More than 15 years ago, when my friend in Japan invested in a house in Nusa Dua, Bali, he put his name as the holder of the land deed (Sertifikat Tanah) and his name as the mortgage holder (the mortgagee can be a foreign national).

Although there are many bad stories about land transactions in Indonesia, as long as the land deed is prepared by Notaris (administrative scrivener), it is not possible to sell the mortgaged property without permission.

In the case of this friend, because fortunately the Indonesian of the name was a trustworthy person, the sale was done without a problem, but I think that there is a risk that some conditions are attached when selling if the person who chooses is wrong.

Hak Pakai is only a right to the building on the land (Hak atas tanah), and it seems that it can be upgraded to Hak Milik (Meningkatkan Hak Pakai Menjadi Hak Milik) at the time of sale at a cost to the state, but the subject land is less than 5,000 square meters, and the use of the land after conversion is limited to housing, and of course, the party who can be sold as Hak Milik is an Indonesian.

Notaris will do the work for you, but you'll need to have the following documentation, which is roughly what you're supposed to do

  • IMB (Izin Mendirikan Bangunan) for housing (rumah tinggal).
  • Ask the government office that has jurisdiction over the area in which the land is located (kelurahan) to issue a document "certifying the use of the land for residential purposes".
  • In order to create a conversion deed (Akta perubahan) in Notaris, you will naturally need to provide identification documents such as KTP of the owner and the seller, and a power of attorney (Surat kuasa).
  • The latest receipt you received from the town hall when you paid your property tax (PBB = Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan).

There is a formula for calculating the costs to be paid to the government, but it is not good to write about things you have no experience in, so you can get a lot of results by searching "Meningkatkan Hak Pakai Menjadi Hak Milik biaya?" or something like that.

As of August 2016, as long as the property meets certain conditions (the price is 5 Milyar or more), you can buy a new apartment in the name of a foreigner, but a room in an apartment is "a room in a building built on common land" as the character reads, and the right to it is a "strata title" as in Japan.

A prenuptial agreement (Perjanjian Perkawinan) specifying the separate ownership of property (pisah harta)

For example, when an Indonesian couple buys and sells a property in the husband's name, the wife's approval is also required.

In other words, an Indonesian who has a foreign spouse who cannot be the nominee of the property cannot purchase the property because it is out of the principle of Harta bersama, but it is possible to do so if a prenuptial agreement (Perjanjian Perkawinan) is made before the marriage and the property separation (Pisah Harta) is specified in it.

Reading Perjanjian Perkawinan, which I created in Denpasar's Notaris a few weeks before the wedding, for the first time in a long time, I found that the regulations are made according to the type of movable (Brang-barang bergerak) and real estate (Brang-barang tidak bergerak).

 

PASAL 1. Don't confuse things, debts and credits, profit and loss, etc. between husband and wife, but separate the property and debts before and after the marriage and take responsibility for them.

  • Antara suami-isteri tidak akan terjadi pencampuran harta baik dari barang-barang, hak-hak mapun dari hutang-hutang, demikian pula segala pencampuran dari keuntungan dan kerugian atau dari penghasilan dan pendapatanpun tidak akan terjadi.Kekayaan dan hutang dari masing-masing pihak meskipun ada terjadi sebelum dan sesudah perkawinan dilakukan tetap menjadi hak atau tanggungan masing-masing pihak.

PASAL 2. All of the wife's property and income belongs to her, and she does not need her husband's approval to manage it (such as selling it).

  • Pihak isteri berhak mengurus dan menguasai harta kekayaannya sendiri baik yang bergerak maupun tidak bergerak dan memakai segala penghasilan dan pendapatan untuk dirinya sendiri.Terhadap pengurusan itu pihak isteri tidak perlu dibantu oleh suami, tetapi meskipun demikian pihak isteri dengan ini diberi kuasa dengan kuasa tetap seperlunya oleh pihak suami untuk melakukan pengurusan tersebut dengan tidak usah mendapat bantuan dari pihak suami.

PASAL 3. The husband is responsible for all living expenses and the wife is not charged for them.

  • Biaya-biaya untuk rumah tangga, untuk mendidik dan memelihara anak-anak yang dilahirkan dari perkawinan mereka dipikul oleh pihak suami, sedangkan pihak isteri tidak sekali-kali dapat ditagih atau digugat perihal hutang-hutang yang berhubungan dengan biaya-biaya itu.

PASAL 4. The chattels acquired after marriage must be managed by a title, and those without a title belong to the wife.

  • Brang-barang bergerak yang oleh masing-masing pihak didapat dari apapun juga sesudah perkawinan dilansungkan wajib dibuktikan dengan surat-surat atau dengan pertelaan yang ditandatangani oleh kedua belah pihak dengan tidak mengurangi hak pihak isteri atau akhliwarisnya untuk membuktikan adanya barang-barang itu atau seharganya dengan bukti-bukti lain atau pengetahuan umum/jalan yang dimaksud dalam Undang-undang.Barang-barang bergerak yang tidak dapat dibuktikan dengan pertelaan tersebut atau surat-surat lain, bahwa itu kepunyaan pihak suami, tidak boleh dianggap sebagai kepunyaan pihak suami, tidak boleh dianggap sebagai kepunyaaan pihak suami, akan tetapi akan dianggap kepunyaan isteri.

PASAL 5. Clothes and ornaments belong to the side that you use daily, and daily items in the house belong to your wife and are not subject to the definition in this document.

  • Pakaian-pakaian dan perhiasan-perhiasan yang ada pada masing-masing pihak pada waktu perkawinan diputuskan atau pada waktu diadakan perhitungan menurut Hukum, akan dianggap sebagai kepunyaan siapa diantara pihak yang memakai atau dianggap biasa memakai barang-barang itu, sehingga terhadap barang-barang tersebut tidak akan diadakan perhitungan.Segala macam barang-barang untuk keperluan rumah tangga termasuk pula perabot-perabot makan, minum dan tidur yang ada didalam rumah suami-isteri pada waktu perkawinan diputuskan atau pada waktu diadakan perhitungan menurut Hukum akan dianggap kepunyaan pihak isteri, sehingga terhadap barang-barangtersebut tidak akan diadakan perhitungan.Akhirnya kedua belah pihak menerangkan, bahwa dalam perkawinan yang akan dilakukan itu, selain pakaian dan barang-barang perhiasan mereka masing-masing serta barang-barang perhiasan mereka masing-masing serta barang-barang lain yang sudah tercatat atas nama masing-masing pihak yang para penghadap menerangkan tidak perlu diuraikan lebih lanjut dalam akta ini, menerangkan masing-masing tidak membawa apapun yang perlu ditulis dalam akta ini.

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